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Last updated January 18, 2021. 6 minute read

Understanding what the novel coronavirus is

COVID-19 is characterized by symptoms that are similar to the common cold and flu, such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms include chills, shaking, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, new loss of taste or smell, and more.

Dr Chimene Richa Md Written by Dr. Chimene Richa, MD
Reviewed by Dr. Tzvi Doron, DO

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause a range of respiratory illnesses. Under a microscope, viruses in this family have an outer crown or “corona.” If you have ever had the common cold, you likely have had a coronavirus infection. Several coronaviruses infect humans, and they cause different illnesses. Some cause a mild illness like the common cold, while others cause more severe conditions, like Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). The novel coronavirus that everyone has been talking about lately usually causes a mild illness (WHO, 2020), but it can have more severe symptoms in some people. The disease is called coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19—“CO” for corona, “VI” for virus, “D” for disease, and “2019” because of the year it was discovered (CDC, 2020). The new strain of coronavirus was present in animals, but in 2019 it was first discovered to be infecting humans in Wuhan, China. The virus that causes COVID-19 is called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which is shortened to SARS-CoV-2. It is related to SARS but is not the same virus (CDC, 2020).


  • Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause a range of respiratory illnesses, including the common cold, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).
  • The newest strain of coronavirus, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), was discovered in humans in 2019. It started in Wuhan, China and spread globally.
  • COVID-19 is characterized by symptoms that are similar to the common cold and flu, such as fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Other symptoms include chills, shaking, muscle pain, headache, sore throat, new loss of sense of taste or smell, and more.
  • 80% of people who get COVID-19 recover without needing special treatment. Approximately one in six people (especially those who are older or have other medical issues) will get more severe symptoms, and the risk of death from COVID-19 in infected people is currently estimated to be 3.4%. However, other estimates suggest the case fatality rate is closer to 1%.
  • The best treatment is prevention by avoiding people who are sick, staying home if you are sick, and washing hands with soap and water for 20 seconds regularly.

What is COVID-19?

COVID-19 is the disease caused by the new coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2. This virus started out as a virus that infects animals. At some point, the virus changed, and it gained the ability to infect humans as well. Reports of the virus causing a new illness in humans first came out of Wuhan, Hubei Province, China. At first, most of the infected people had had contact with live animals at a large market prior to the infection, suggesting that the virus was jumping from animals to people. Later on, it became clear that the virus was also moving from person-to-person, as more people without animal contact were getting infected. Since international travel is relatively accessible, the illness has now spread outside of China to the rest of the world. You can click here to see the latest numbers for COVID-19 in the United States (CDC, 2020).

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the virus that causes COVID-19 is transmitted mainly from person-to-person, mostly through virus-containing respiratory droplets that are produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. These droplets can travel approximately six feet. If one of these infected droplets lands in a person’s mouth or nose, they may get infected. This is why it is recommended that you stay at least six feet away from someone who is sick and coughing (WHO, 2020). 

New research has shown that it’s unlikely to contract COVID from touching a contaminated surface like a doorknob and then touching your mouth or nose. The most common way in which the virus spreads is through respiratory droplets — when someone who is infected coughs, sneezes, or even speaks in your direction. That’s why wearing even simple cloth masks and maintaining six feet of distance from other people reduces the chance of viral spread.

Signs and symptoms of COVID-19

The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 can range from mild to severe and even results in death in some cases. More than 80% of people with COVID-19 recover without any complications or needing special treatment. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), approximately one in six people with COVID-19 have more severe symptoms. This is most likely to occur in older people and those with other medical problems like heart problems, diabetes, cancer, or a weak immune system (WHO, 2020). On March 3, 2020, the Director-General of the WHO, Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, reported a 3.4% fatality rate from COVID-19. However, the case fatality rate is likely to be dependent on a number of factors and may vary. One study found that, as of February 11, 2020, the case fatality rate in China was 2.3% while, as of March 17, 2020, the case fatality rate in Italy was 7.2% (Onder, 2020). The main symptoms, which can appear anywhere from 2–14 days after infection, include (CDC, 2020):

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing
  • Fatigue
  • Muscle or body aches
  • Headache
  • Sore throat
  • New loss of taste or smell
  • Congestion or runny nose
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea

Additional symptoms are also possible. If these look familiar, that is because the common cold and flu viruses can cause similar symptoms. How can you tell the difference? It’s not always easy. If your symptoms are mild, you can usually just stay home and rest. However, if you develop difficulty breathing, seek medical attention (CDC, 2020).

Prevention and treatment of COVID-19

The best way to prevent you or your family from getting sick is to use healthy practices that prevent the spread of germs, similar to what you probably already do to avoid catching a cold, the flu, or other respiratory viruses.

  • If you are sick, stay home (unless you need urgent medical care).
  • Avoid close contact (less than six feet) with people outside of your immediate household. To help prevent the spread of the disease, practice social distancing, which involves staying at least six feet away from everybody.
  • Cover your mouth with a tissue when you sneeze or cough and then throw it away. If there are no tissues readily available, sneeze, or cough into your elbow rather than your hands. Wash your hands with soap and water afterward.
  • Avoid touching your mouth, nose, or eyes.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially after going to the bathroom, before eating, and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing. Alternatively, you can use a hand sanitizer that is at least 60% alcohol if soap and water are not available. If your hands are visibly soiled, you should wash them with soap and water. Hand sanitizer is not a good alternative in this case.

In addition, the CDC recommends that people wear masks or cloth face coverings in public settings where social distancing is difficult. Cloth face coverings help prevent you from getting others sick, in case you happen to be carrying the virus.

While most people who get coronavirus never require medical attention, a small subset of patients may need treatment. In October of 2020, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved the first treatment for COVID: an antiviral medication called Remdesivir (FDA, 2020). In one trial, researchers saw that it improved symptoms and shortened hospital stays in comparison with placebo for patients hospitalized with coronavirus (Beigel, 2020). Remdesivir is not for everyone. It will not prevent you from getting the virus and it is currently only administered in a hospital setting. There are other treatments currently being used, including steroid medications, oxygen treatment, and other antiviral drugs. Most people who get coronavirus will require supportive treatment only without hospitalization.

In December 2020, the FDA granted emergency use authorization (EUA) for two different vaccines — one created by Pfizer and another by Moderna. While distribution has begun, it may be a while before the shots are available for the general public.

In conclusion

Scientists—and everyone else—are still learning about COVID-19 and how to keep as many people as healthy as possible. The best thing you can do for yourself is to practice healthy hygiene practices, like frequent hand-washing, wearing a mask when you leave your house, avoiding people who are sick, and staying home if you develop symptoms or are exposed to someone who has tested positive. Keep yourself informed on the status of the virus in your area and review prevention guidelines with your community, friends, and family members.