Information about the novel coronavirus (the virus that causes COVID-19) is constantly evolving. We will refresh our novel coronavirus content periodically based on newly published peer-reviewed findings to which we have access. For the most reliable and up-to-date information, please visit the CDC website or the WHO’s advice for the public.
How long coronaviruses can live outside of the body
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause diseases such as the common cold, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which belongs to this family of viruses. Coronaviruses are zoonotic, which means they can be transmitted between animals and humans. A novel or new coronavirus is one that has recently jumped from animals to humans.
Since the COVID-19 virus is genetically similar to the virus that caused SARS, the durability of these respiratory viruses on surfaces may be approximately the same. A review of 22 previous studies on other types of coronavirus (not necessarily SARS-CoV-2) found that the virus can survive on surfaces such as glass, metal, and plastic for up to nine days at room temperature—but that it is easily inactivated by cleaners (Kampf, 2020).
A study published in the New England Journal of Medicine found that SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in aerosols for up to three hours, on copper for up to four hours, on cardboard for up to 24 hours, and on plastic and stainless steel for up to 72 hours (Doremalen, 2020).
Still, research has shown that it’s unlikely for a person to get infected with COVID by touching a surface. Most of the evidence seems to show that the virus itself isn’t very stable outside of our bodies and only non-infectious remnants of the virus remain on surfaces (Goldman, 2020).
“The CDC notes that there’s a low risk of infection from products that have been shipped from areas with outbreaks because of the virus’s “low survivability on surfaces.”
The CDC notes that there’s a low risk of infection from products that have been shipped from areas with outbreaks because of the virus’s “low survivability on surfaces” (2019-nCoV Frequently Asked Questions, 2020). So what does that mean? No need to scrub your groceries with disinfectant before putting them in your fridge.
How to prevent transmission of coronavirus
First and foremost, wash your hands regularly, as this is one of the best ways to stop the spread of many pathogens, including coronavirus. You need to follow proper hand hygiene, which entails washing your hands with warm water and soap for at least 20 seconds after using the restroom, after coughing or sneezing, and before eating. Avoid touching your eyes, mouth, or nose with unwashed hands. As long as a sanitizer has more than 60% alcohol concentration, it can be used when soap and water are not available. But it’s important to remember that handwashing with soap and water for at least 20 seconds is the preferred method for cutting down on transmission risk.
Avoid spending time with people outside your own household, especially without a mask. Since the symptoms of many respiratory viruses can be similar similar, and about 80% of the coronavirus cases are mild or asymptomatic, you may not know if a person is even sick with COVID-19.
However, if someone needs medical attention, they should seek it. Technology is a great way to facilitate care without exposure and risk of infection. If someone you know is sick, make sure they are getting the care they need. If you’re the one who falls ill, stay home from work or school to avoid exposing others and seek medical attention and testing. Most health care systems have a protocol for screening for potential exposures, including some digital screening options.
How COVID-19 began
In December 2019, local health officials in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China reported several cases of pneumonia among a group of people linked to a wholesale market in Wuhan. That was the start of COVID-19. This outbreak began in a highly-populated area, in the winter months, around the time for the celebration of Chinese New Year. Since the outbreak, it has spread around the world. Travel restrictions and mandated quarantines were put in place to slow down the spread of the virus.
The virus has a long incubation period, which makes it difficult to fully contain, as people may be without symptoms up to 14 days after exposure. The World Health Organization (WHO) has put the incubation period between 1–14 days, with an average of around five days (Q&A on Coronaviruses, 2020). But there has been a documented case in which symptoms didn’t show up until after day 27.
How coronavirus is transmitted
The coronavirus is spread via respiratory droplets, which are produced when coughing or sneezing. Respiratory droplets do not tend to remain airborne but they can travel about six feet through the air. So, if a person is in close proximity to an infected person with respiratory symptoms or moving through a crowded area, there is a possibility of exposure. The virus can also spread if it is introduced to the mucous membranes (surfaces) in the mouth, nose, or eyes. You may get infected from touching these areas if your hands are contaminated, which is why following proper hand hygiene is so important.
If you are exposed to a person with coronavirus, the CDC recommends self-quarantining for 10 days. Some people never develop symptoms of coronavirus, even if they are infected, so even if you feel well, it’s important to stay away from others. If you are diagnosed with coronavirus, you should self-isolate and stay away from people in your own household as well, if possible. It’s especially important to stay away from people who are at risk of developing a serious case of the virus if exposed. This includes people over the age of 65, those with underlying respiratory conditions like asthma or COPD, and individuals with immune disorders (CDC, 2020).