Vitamin E

D-alpha tocopheryl succinate

Vitamin E refers to a group of vitamins that are notable for their role as antioxidants in the body.

Sourced from China


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Some studies have shown that vitamin E supplementation can have beneficial effects on the bones in the elderly.

It is recommended that men have at least 15 mg per day of vitamin E, which can come from food or supplements.

Vitamin E supplements can interact with certain medications. If you have questions about the medications you are on, talk to your healthcare provider before taking vitamin E supplements.

What is vitamin E?

Vitamin E is a group of fat-soluble vitamins that are involved in several of the body’s processes. The other fat-soluble vitamins are vitamin A, vitamin D, and vitamin K, and all four of these vitamins can be stored in the fatty tissues of the body. The primary role of vitamin E is to function as an antioxidant. This means that vitamin E helps neutralize chemically active compounds, preventing cells from getting damaged. Vitamin E specifically functions as an antioxidant when the body metabolizes fat molecules.

Where does vitamin E come from?

Most of the vitamin E that people get in the diet comes from oils, including canola oil and vegetable oil. Other good sources of vitamin E include nuts, seeds, and leafy vegetables. Some other foods are sometimes fortified with vitamin E. This means that vitamin E is added to the food in a public health effort to help make sure everybody is getting enough each day (3).

What are the health benefits of vitamin E?

Vitamin E primarily functions as an antioxidant in the body, which helps protect cells from damage. Because of its role in protecting cells, it is suspected that vitamin E may have play a role in delaying heart disease, decreasing the risk of age-related macular degeneration and cataracts, and slowing cognitive decline (3). However, while some studies have seen beneficial effects in these areas, overall the evidence is not strong enough to be able to say that vitamin E actually has these health benefits.

Vitamin E may also have the following health benefits, which is why it was chosen to be an ingredient in the Roman Dailies:

Bone Health

It is suspected that vitamin E’s antioxidant activity may be protective against bone loss. One study compared a group that received supplementation with two antioxidants (1,000 mg per day of vitamin C and 600 mg per day of vitamin E) with a group that underwent resistance training and a placebo group. After six months, the placebo group experienced some bone loss while those who received supplementation and those who underwent resistance training had stable bone mineral density (1). Another study found that supplementation with 1,000 mg per day of vitamin C and 268 mg (400 IU) per day of vitamin E could help treat osteoporosis in the elderly (4). Additionally, one study found that low consumption and low levels of alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were associated with an increased risk of fracture in the elderly (2). While these findings are promising, more research still needs to be done before the full effects of vitamin E on bone health can be known.

How much vitamin E is recommended?

The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of vitamin E is 15 mg (22.4 IU) per day for men and women over the age of 13. For women who are breastfeeding, 19 mg (28.4 IU) per day is recommended. The RDA represents the daily amount of a vitamin that is considered sufficient for 97–98% of healthy individuals.

On the other end of the spectrum, the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for vitamin E is 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) per day for both men and women over the age of 18. Repeated intake of amounts greater than the UL can lead to poor health outcomes (3).

What are the symptoms of having too little vitamin E?

Vitamin E deficiency is rare and does not typically cause any symptoms. People with digestive disorders are at increased risk of becoming vitamin E deficient, as are people with rare disorders such as abetalipoproteinemia and ataxia and vitamin E deficiency (AVED). When symptoms do occur, they include (3):

  • Numbness or tingling in the extremities
  • Lack of voluntary movement and other muscle issues
  • Eye problems
  • Decreased immune response
  • Hemolytic anemia

What are the symptoms of having too much vitamin E?

When vitamin E is only consumed in food, there does not appear to be a toxic level at which adverse health outcomes occur. However, in people who take vitamin E supplements, there is an increased risk of bleeding and hemorrhage that has been seen in vitro and in animal studies.

What to look for in a good vitamin E supplement:

Vitamin E supplements typically come in the form of alpha-tocopherol. Alpha-tocopherol can be made synthetically, in which case it is given the prefix “DL.” When alpha-tocopherol is natural, it is given the prefix “D.” Natural alpha-tocopherol is more active than the synthetic form, therefore you need less of it to achieve the same effects.

How does Roman offer vitamin E?

Roman obtains vitamin E from a non-GMO source in China. It is derived from vegetable oil and is available as D-alpha tocopheryl succinate.

Roman offers vitamin E in the following supplements:

Bone Health

Vitamin E is one of ten main ingredients in Roman’s Bone Health supplement. The supplement consists of three tablets that should be taken with water. Each individual tablet contains 89.33 mg (133.33 IU) of vitamin E, for a total daily dose of 268 mg (400 IU).

Other ingredients in the tablets include ascorbic acid, calcium citrate, magnesium citrate, silicon dioxide, boron citrate, menaquinone-4, menaquinone-7, phytonadione, cholecalciferol, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, dicalcium phosphate, croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, and pharmaceutical glaze (shellac, povidone).

Does vitamin E interact with any other drugs or medical conditions?

Vitamin E interacts with several other medications. If you are taking any of the following medications, it is important you talk to your healthcare provider before beginning vitamin E supplementation (please note that this list may not be exhaustive and other medications may also interact with vitamin E) (3):

  • Anticoagulation and antiplatelet medications, including warfarin (brand name Coumadin)
  • Simvastatin and niacin
  • Chemotherapy and radiation

It is also recommended that anybody who has an upcoming surgery stop taking vitamin E supplements at least a week prior to surgery.


  1. Chuin A, Labonté M, Tessier D, et al. Effect of antioxidants combined to resistance training on BMD in elderly women: a pilot study. Osteoporosis International. 2008;20(7):1253-1258. doi:10.1007/s00198-008-0798-5.
  2. Michaëlsson K, Wolk A, Byberg L, Ärnlöv J, Melhus H. Intake and serum concentrations of α-tocopherol in relation to fractures in elderly women and men: 2 cohort studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013;99(1):107-114. doi:10.3945/ajcn.113.064691.
  3. Office of Dietary Supplements – Vitamin E. NIH Office of Dietary Supplements. Accessed November 22, 2019.
  4. Ruiz-Ramos M, Vargas LA, T. I. Fortoul Van Der Goes, Cervantes-Sandoval A, Mendoza-Nú`nez VM. Supplementation of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol is useful to preventing bone loss linked to oxidative stress in elderly. The journal of nutrition, health & aging. 2010;14(6):467-472. doi:10.1007/s12603-010-0099-5.