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Last updated September 9, 2021. 3 minute read

How can I prevent and prepare for COVID-19?

There are some best practices you can follow to help lower the risk of spreading any respiratory infection like the common cold or flu (most of these are just common courtesy!).

Written by Rachel Honeyman
Reviewed by Tzvi Doron, DO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an illness caused by a novel coronavirus called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that cause contagious illnesses that affect the respiratory system, like the common cold. SARS-CoV-2 causes mild symptoms (cough, fever, trouble breathing) in about 80% of patients who get it (Wu, 2020). 

For some people who get COVID-19 (usually those over 65 years old, or who have other health problems, or both), the symptoms can be more severe, and they need to go to the hospital and may even need to be put on a ventilator (breathing machine).

How to prevent COVID-19

There are some best practices you can follow to help lower the risk of spreading any respiratory infection like the common cold or flu (most of these are things you probably already do out of common courtesy!). Vaccines will help curb the spread of COVID-19 which is why it’s so important to get vaccinated. Until you’ve been vaccinated, the CDC recommends the following:

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick. To help prevent the spread of the disease, practice social distancing (6 feet of separation) when guidelines indicate.
  • Wear a cloth mask in indoor public areas (this helps prevent you from spreading the virus to others), and in outdoor areas if you’re in close contact with others.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth.
  • If you’re sick, stay home.
  • If you cough or sneeze, cover your mouth and nose with a tissue, then throw the tissue away and wash your hands.
  • Wash your hands frequently with soap and water for at least 20 seconds (one tip is to wash for the duration of singing the song “Happy Birthday” twice), especially after:
    • Using the bathroom
    • Before eating
    • After blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing
  • If you’re not near a sink with soap and water, an alcohol-based hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol can be used. The exception is if your hands are visibly dirty: In that case, always wash with soap and water.

Also, remember you are also at risk of catching the common cold or the flu. Everybody who is healthy, including kids over six months of age and almost everybody else (there are some rare exceptions), should get a flu shot every year to protect against the flu.

How to prepare for COVID-19

Although most people who get COVID-19 have mild symptoms that go away on their own, it spreads fairly easily. There are still things you can do to help limit the spread of the disease and best help people who need it. The CDC recommends the following for getting your household ready for a potential COVID-19 outbreak:

  • Get vaccinated. Check out your local pharmacy to find out where you can get vaccinated. The vaccines are highly effective and protect not only you but also those around you from catching and spreading COVID-19.
  • Stay up to date regarding outbreaks in your area by following information provided by local public health officials.
  • Create a list of emergency contacts for your family in the event that someone in your household gets sick with COVID-19. You can include family members, friends, and neighbors, healthcare providers as well as the nearest urgent care or hospital and other community resources.
  • Create a plan of action for your household: Do your best to avoid going places with lots of people who are not vaccinated. Plan for ways to help people who most need it, including older people and people who are living with chronic illnesses. Talk to your neighbors about emergency plans, identify local organizations that might be helpful, and create a list of emergency contacts.
  • Remind everyone of good personal health habits: Wash your hands and cover your coughs and sneezes. Also, if you can, pick a room in your home that could be used to keep sick members away from healthy members of your family. If you’re going to spend time in close proximity with people who are not vaccinated, it’s still advised that you wear a mask.
  • If you are exposed to someone who has tested positive for coronavirus, it’s important that you and the members of your household self-quarantine for 10 days. If you yourself test positive for coronavirus, whether or not you have symptoms, you should self-isolate (even from members of your household, if possible). The CDC recommends isolating until it has been 10 days since your symptoms first appeared and you have been fever-free for 24 hours without the use of fever-lowering medications.


  1. Center for Disease Control (CDC) CDC. How to Protect Yourself and Others. (13 August 2021). Retrieved September 9, 2021 from

    Wu, Z., & McGoogan, J. M. (2020). Characteristics of and Important Lessons From the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in China. JAMA.